Generation Of Computer | Characteristic of First Generation Computers | Second Generation Computers | Third Generation Computers | Four Generation Computers | Five Generation Computers

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First Generation Of Computer (1946-1955) | Characteristic of First Generation Computers

Upload time : 2019-03-11 16:33:44

Category : Computers Generation


- The first large electronic computer was completed in 1946 by a team led by Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in USA.

- It is called as Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator(ENIAC) which used high speed Vacuum tube switching devices.

- It had small memory and was designed to calculate the trajectories of missiles. It took about 200 microsecond to add two digit and about 2800 microsecond to multiply.

- A major drawback of ENIAC was that its program were wired on boards that made it difficult to change the program.

- Dr.John Von Neumann introduce Stored Program Concept which is used by Electrical Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) of USA.

- At the same time U.K. Developed Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). - In this machine addition operations took 1500 microsecond and multiplication operation took 4000 microsecond.

- Commercial production of stored program machine in 50s and that is Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVACI) build by Univac division of Remington Rand and delivered in 1951.

- It also used Vacuum Tube. It used filament as a source of electron, they had limited life.

- Computers typically used more than 10,000 tubes so power dissipation was very high.

- During this time programming was mainly done in machine language.

- Initial application of this computer was in science and engineering.

Characteristic of First Generation Computers

- They were the fastest calculating devices of their time.

- They were too bulky in size, required large rooms for installation.

- They used thousands of vacuum tubes that heat large amount of heat so the rooms in which these computers were located had to be properly air-conditioned.

- Each vacuum tube consumes half a watt of power and it used more than 10,000 vacuum tubes , power consumption was very high.

- As vacuum tube used filament, they had limited life and computer used thousands of vacuum tube they face frequent hardware failures.

- Due to low mean time between failure, these computer required constant maintenance.

- Commercial production of these computer was difficult and costly because thousands of individual component were assembled manually by hand in electronic circuits.

- It had limited commercial use because it is difficult to program and used.

Second Generation Of Computer (1955-1965) | Characteristic of Second Generation Computers

Upload time : 2019-03-13 09:02:06

Category : Computers Generation


- John Bardeen, willian shockley, and Walter Brattain invented a new electronic switching device called transistor at Bell Laboratories in 1947.

- Transistor proved to be better device than vacuum tube because,

- They are easy to handle than tubes because they are made of germanium semiconductor material rather than glass.

- They were highly reliable as compared to tubes because they had no parts like a filament.

- They could switch faster than tube.

- They consumed almost one tenth power consumed by a tube.

- They were much smaller than tube.

- They were less expensive.

- They dissipated less heat as compared to vacuum tube.

- Second generation computer emerged around 1955 transistor instead of Vacuum tube.

- Magnetic cores for storage was generated in this period, it was a tiny ring made up of ferrit and can be magnetized in either clockwise or anticlockwise direction to represent 0 and 1.

- Memory capacity was about 100 KB.

- Higher level programming language like FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol SNOBOL & operating System were developed during this generation.

- International Business machine (IBM) 700 series computer emerged during second generation using batch oriented operating system.

- Commercial application rapidly developed during this period.

- More than 80% installed computer used in business and industry.

- Payroll, inventory control, marketing, production planning and general ledger system were developed.

- New professions in computing such as System Analyst and Programmer emerged during second generation.

Characteristics of Second Generation

- They are more than ten times faster than first generation.

- They are smaller than first generation computer so require small space.

- Consume less power and dissipate less heat than first generation.

- More reliable and less prone to hardware failure than first generation.

- They had faster and larger primary and secondary storage as compared to first generation.

- They were easier to program.

- Thousands of individual transistors had to be assembled manually by hand into electronic circuits making commercial production of these computer difficult and costly.

Third Generation Of Computer (1965-1975) | Characteristic of Third Generation Computers

Upload time : 2019-03-13 09:16:44

Category : Computers Generation


- In 1958, Jack St.Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce invented first integrated circuit (IC).

- IC consist of transistors, resistors and capacitors.

- Small scale integrated chip had about 10 transistor per chip, for medium scale 100 transistor per chip.

- Switching speed of transistors went up by factor of 10, reliability increased by factor of 10, power dissipation reduced by factor of 10 and size also reduce by factor of 10.

- The cumulative effect this was powerful CPUs with capacity of carrying out 1 million instruction per second.

- Some new features like virtual memory, interrupt processor, base register become a part of a commercial computer.

- Size of main memory reached about 4MB and Magnetic disk become 100 MB.

- This all things led to development of time shared operating system. It increased programmer productivity.

- On-line system become feasible like Dynamic Production Control System, Airline Reservation System, Interactive Query System and real time closed loop process control system.

- High level languages improved. FORTRAN IV and optimizing FORTRAN compiler were developed.

- COBOL 68 was standardize by American National Standard Institute.

Characteristics of Third Generation

- More powerful than second generation. Capable of performing about 1 million instruction per second.

- Smaller than second generation so require small space.

- They consume less power and dissipated less heat than second generation computer but still required proper air-conditioned.

- Less hardware failure than second generation so require lower maintenance cost.

- They had faster and larger primary and secondary storage.

- Used for both scientific and commercial application.

- Did not require manual assembly of individual components into electronic circuits resulting in reduced human labour and cost involved at assembly stage so commercial production of these system was easier and cheaper highly sophisticated technology and expensive setup was required for manufacturing of IC chips.

- Standard high level programming languages allowed programs written for one computer to be easily ported to and executed on another computer.

- Timesharing Operating system comes in exist.

- Unbundling of software from hardware gave users of the systems an opportunity to invest only in software of their need and value.

- Minicomputers of third generation made computers affordable even by smaller companies.

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